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By Jack Barrett

Barrett J. Atomic constitution and periodicity (Royal Society of Chemistry, 2002)(ISBN 0854046577)

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A The wave function implies that electron 1 is resident in orbital u and electron 2 is in orbital b and that electrons can so be distinguished. This is not possible. e. it does not change sign if the two electrons are exchanged between their occupancies of the two orbitals. The orbital part of w,, does change sign if the two electrons are exchanged, and is anti-symmetric to that operation. If the two electrons possess identical spins, the two spin wave functions can be written as: a( l)a(2)and p( 1)p(2), a and p being used to represent the two possible values of the electron spin.

The breakdown of orbital degeneracy (for a given I value) in a magnetic field explains the Zeeman effect. This is the observation that in the presence of a magnetic field the atomic spectrum of an element has more lines than in the absence of the field. 1 ~ Q If the value of I is 3, what are the permitted values for in,? I 1 A The permitted values for m, are 3, 2, 1, 0, -1, -2 and -3. ' Q State whether the following sets of quantum number values are I valid descriptions of atomic orbitals, and explain why some are invalid.

4) may be rearranged to read: mem, pme +m, j where mp is the mass of the proton. 1044313 x l 0-31kg to eight significant figures. 3) gives the permitted energies for the electron in the hydrogen atom. 5) is iden tical to the observed value obtained from spectroscopic measurements of the hydrogen atom emission lines. 6. 0967758 x lo7 m-' to eight significant figures. The units of the universal constants, given above, reduce to reciprocal metres. An excellent agreement with the experimental value.

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