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S. S. 10). Pests of Onion 45 Fig. 6. Tachinid parasitoid eggs on Spodoptera exigua larva Fig. 7. Larva of Spodoptera exigua infected by nucleopolyhedro virus Fig. 8. Larva of Spodoptera exigua killed by nucleopolyhedro virus Fig. 9. Larva of Spodoptera exigua killed by Nomurea rileyi Fig. 10. A microsporidian infecting a larva of Spodoptera exigua 46 Pests of Major Vegetable Crops Other remarks: There are several larval color phases, ranging from green to nearly black. Sometimes the dark-colored larvae are confused with other army worm species.

Fig. 12. Adult Amrasca bigutata 36 Pests of Major Vegetable Crops Damage: Both nymphs and adults feed by sucking the sap on the undersurface of leaves. ” Natural enemies: The parasitoids, Anagyrus flaveolus and Stethynium triclavatum, have been recorded. Common name: Spider mites Scientific name: Tetranychus spp. (Tetranychus urticae Koch) Order: Aranae Family: Tetranychidae Distribution: Cosmopolitan Hosts: Polyphagous Life cycle: Adults vary in color from green to yellow to brown. Eggs are round, white or cream, and hatch in 2-4 days.

Larvae of Crocidolomia pavonana 19 Fig. 11. ) Order: Lepidoptera Family: Pieridae Distribution: Asia, North Africa, Europe, Australia, North America Hosts: Crucifers Life cycle: Adults deposit single eggs that hatch in 3–4 days depending upon temperature. Larvae undergo five developmental stages, and pupation takes place on the plant. 14). Damage: Larval feeding on leaves of crucifers can cause serious damage. Natural enemies: Little is known about natural enemies of this insect in Asia. In India, Apanteles glomeratus (Lineaeus) has been reported.

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