By Robert M. Hayden, Aykan Erdemir, Tuğba Tanyeri-Erdemir, Timothy D. Walker, Devika Rangachari, Manuel Aguilar-Moreno, Enrique López-Hurtado, Milica Bakić-Hayden
Adversarial Tolerance examines styles of coexistence and clash among contributors of other non secular groups, utilizing multidisciplinary learn to investigate teams who've peacefully intermingled for generations, and who can have built facets of syncretism of their non secular practices, and but have became violently on one another. Such groups outline themselves as separate peoples, with assorted and sometimes competing pursuits, but their interplay is mostly peaceful supplied the dominance of 1 team is apparent. the major indicator of dominance is keep an eye on over primary spiritual websites, that may be tacitly shared for lengthy classes, yet later contested or even switched over as dominance alterations. via concentrating on those shared and contested websites, this quantity allows a much wider realizing of kinfolk among those communities.
Using various ethnographic, ancient and archaeological facts from the Balkans, India, Mexico, Peru, Portugal and Turkey, hostile Tolerance develops a comparative version of the aggressive sharing and transformation of non secular websites. those stories usually are not regarded as remoted instances, yet are as a substitute woven right into a unified analytical framework and is the reason how long term peaceable interactions among spiritual groups can flip conflictual or even bring about ethnic detoxing.
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Extra resources for Antagonistic Tolerance: Competitive Sharing of Religious Sites and Spaces
Eventually either one god or the other succumbs and disappears or is relegated to an inferior position; or again, the two may be more or less completely identified and fused. Especially revealing are the sites at which neither of the competing groups is clearly dominant: The “ambiguous” sanctuary, claimed and frequented by both religions [Christianity and Islam], seems to represent a distinct stage of development – the period of equipoise, as it were – in the transition both from Christianity to Bektashism7 and, in the rare cases where political and other circumstances were favorable, from Bektashism to Christianity.
And, in fact, since Pullan and others (for example Singh 2011) stress the constructive element of agonistic relations, we believe that antagonism remains the more appropriate concept. Antagonism need not imply hatred, or failure to interact peacefully – indeed, the whole literature on strategic thinking requires that antagonists must often think in ways that are cooperative, from Thomas Schelling’s 1960 classic The Strategy of Conflict onwards. At the same time, antagonistic relations are oppositional, and that is what we see in the kinds of intergroup relations we have analyzed.
All practiced “deity capture”: the capturing of idols or other iconic sacra of a subordinated group, and the incorporation of these captured materials into the service of the capturers. Such actions rarely take place between the adherents of the monotheisms, since the iconic imagery of each is largely unholy, impious or even sacrilegious to the other community. We then analogize further to see a similar tactic being employed by officials of the atheist state of the USSR, but also by archaeologists acting on behalf of secular states – or, at least, this is how the actions of the latter are perceived by those whose sacra have been seized for research purposes.