By G.O. Evans
Hematology information from in vivo toxicology reviews continues to be considered one of the main predictive measures for human threat, because the comparable measurements made in pre-clinical toxicology reviews might be made in early medical trials.
Covering the 3 major blood phone kinds – erythrocytes, leukocytes and thrombocytes, this paintings is designed to explain subject matters for brand new entrants to the fields of laboratory animal hematology and toxicology, in particular these issues the place the foundations for human hematology don't continuously practice. a complete bankruptcy is dedicated to immunotoxicology, a systematic self-discipline that's heavily aligned with hematology.
The textual content additionally addresses pre-analytical and analytical variables that have an effect on animal stories, as those play a much more vital half whilst reading information not like people the place lots of those variables might be good managed or have much less physiological influence. details has been collated from released papers, textbooks and unpublished info: Readers are supplied with key references to inspire additional research
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Additional info for Animal Hematotoxicology: A Practical Guide for Toxicologists and Biomedical Researchers
J. 1992. Differential analysis of animal bone marrow by flow cytometry. Cytometry 13:638–43. Matsumoto, K. 1991. Studies of bone marrow cells in experimental animals: Bone marrow testing in the safety study. Exp. Anim. 40:17–26. Moeller, T. A. 1991. Investigations of myelotoxic effects in rats. Arch. Toxicol. ):83–88. , and Reiland, S. 2000. Differential analysis of rat bone marrow by flow cytometry. Comp. Haematol. Int. 10:97–107. Schlueter, A. , Bhatia, S. , Tygrett, L. , and Waldschmidt, T. J.
Given manual and flow cytometry techniques are labor intensive, many laboratories elect to examine bone marrow smears when there is evidence suggesting hematopoietic effects from either the hemograms or histological evidence from bone marrow sections and examination of the spleen and other tissues. It is common practice for bone marrows to be sampled from subchronic and chronic studies, but only examined at the discretion of the study director, pathologist, or hematologist. A biopsy specimen contains trabecular bone—a meshwork of bony plates and strands containing the hemopoietic tissue and stroma—and the dense cortical bone.
Howell-Jolly bodies: Round-shaped remnants of nuclear chromatin. Pappenheimer bodies: Aggregates of ferritin, and the cell that, if stained positive with Prussian blue, is termed a siderocyte. Given that erythrocytes are typically biconcave disks, measurements of diameters and mean cell volume are highly dependent on the method for measurement, as the erythrocyte shape is altered to enable measurements (see Chapter 10). 1 the approximate relative mean values for adult animal red mean cell volumes are shown; these are freely adapted from several sources of published and unpublished data, and the data show that although the cell diameters are similar for many species, the mean cell volumes differ particularly for mice and cats, which have much lower MCV values.