By William I. Woods, Bruno Glaser (auth.), Dr. Bruno Glaser, Professor William I. Woods (eds.)
The regenerative characteristics pointed out in prehistoric, anthropogenic Amazonian darkish earths recommend that notoriously infertile tropical soils should be drastically better. Soil enhancement practices by means of historical Amerindians allowed them to domesticate the land intensively, without having to repeatedly transparent new fields from wooded area. As expanding populations position ever higher strain on tropical forests, this legacy of wealthy, 'living' soils warrants additional research within the look for high-yield, land-intensive, but sustainable kinds of administration. The foreign staff of individuals to this quantity offers numerous stances centering on features of the beginning, distribution, variability, endurance, and use of Amazonian darkish earths.
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Extra resources for Amazonian Dark Earths: Explorations in Space and Time
Si, and organic matler P. Ca, Mg, Zn, Mo, Cl, Cu, Si, and organ~c matte< I 00 years until present Present human occupation Fig. 2. Process of formation of Black Earth at the Manduquinha site. (Kern 1996) 25 26 D. C. KERN, M. L. DA COSTA, and F. J. L. FRAZÄO occurred during the Quaternary. The source materials for this soil were the clayey, silty, and sandy sediments which correspond to the Alter do Chäo formation of Cretaceous age, subsequently lateritized. These sediments were derived from sedimentary rocks and had been submitted to intense leaching; as a consequence, they are depleted in Ca, Mg, P, Zn, and Mn and show elevated levels of Fe and Al oxides and kaolinitic silicate clay minerals.
CAB International, Wallingford, UK, pp 180-189 Meggers BJ, Evans C (1957) Archaeological investigations at the mouth ofthe Amazon. Bulletin 167. Bureau of Americam Ethnology, Smithsonian Institution, Washington, DC Migliazza E (1964} Organizas;äo social dos Xiriäna do rio Uraricaä. Bol Mus Para Emilio Goeldi Ser Antropol22:1-19 Murrieta BJ, Brondezio E, Siqueira A, Moran E (1989} Estrategia de Subsistencia de uma Populas;äo Ribeirinha do Rio Maraj6-As;u, ilha do Maraj6, Brasil. Bol Mus Para Emilio Goeldi Ser Antropol 5:147-163 Nimuendaju C (1948} Os Tapaj6s.
As already mentioned, ethnographic data show that the organic occupation residues were often randomly deposited in the surroundings and in some cases inside the habitations. Kern (1996) supposed that due to the human occupation, the Manduquinha site was stage for an intense accumulation of organic material that overtook normalleaching processes (Fig. 2). D. 1600, the pedogenic processes intensified in an inverse direction to what had occurred previously during the site's inhabited phase. The discarded organic residue was transformed, releasing chemical elements that went into the soil complex.