By Hanan Frenk
Nicotine is sort of universally believed to be the main issue that motivates smoking and impedes cessation. specialists equivalent to the medical professional common of the united states and the Royal university of Physicians within the united kingdom have declared that nicotine is as addictive as heroin and cocaine. This ebook is a critique of the nicotine dependancy speculation, in accordance with a severe overview of the examine literature that purports to end up that nicotine is as addictive drug. The evaluate relies on a re-evaluation of greater than seven hundred articles and books in this topic, together with animal and human experimental stories, results of `nicotine substitute therapies', and lots of different correct assets. This evaluate concludes that on current facts, there's each cause to reject the commonly authorised concept that nicotine has an enormous function in cigarette smoking. A severe exam of the standards for drug dependancy demonstrates that none of those standards is met through nicotine, and that it's more likely that nicotine actually limits really than enables smoking.
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Extra info for A Critique of Nicotine Addiction (Neurobiological Foundation of Aberrant Behaviors)
Consequently, we shall dedicate the next four chapters to an exploration of the reinforcing properties of nicotine. We begin with a theoretical exposition of reinforcement and the related learning principles, followed by a description of self-administration procedures, based on these principles, for assessing the reinforcing value of drugs. We then proceed to discuss of what constitutes evidence for establishing the reinforcing properties of drugs and particularly nicotine, in self-administration procedures.
At the same time, the drug’s psychoactive effects are not specified, and are not causally related to its “highly controlled or compulsive use,” “stereotopic patterns of use,” or “ use despite harmful effects. ” As we showed in the previous chapters, this is not a trivial oversight: compulsive and stereotypic behavior, craving and relapse can all occur in the absence of any drug. The only place in the definition where a causal relationship between the drug and the behavior is stated is the requirement that the drug should be capable of directly reinforcing behavior, which presumably would lead to continued use.
Only a small minority of drug users (about 10 percent or less) continued to use cocaine, amphetamines, hallucinogens, inhalants, or opiates during the month preceding the survey. More continued in the case of hashish (23%) and ecstasy (20%). Lifetime frequency data obtained in this survey confirmed this pattern. By far, most of the drug users did not use the drug on more than 25 occasions. The noteworthy exceptions are alcohol and tobacco: more than 80 percent of the users used these substances on more than 25 occasions.